He is a founding member of the Storytellers School of Toronto and has been a feature storyteller at festivals across North America, England and Australia. He has won several awards for his efforts in promoting literacy and was the first recipient of The National Symposium on Arts Education Award for innovation and advocacy in Arts Education in Canada. More information on Bob Barton can be found on his website: Shaun Bradley Gary Barwin is a writer, composer, multimedia artist, and educator and the author of 17 books of poetry and fiction as well as books for both teens and children. His work has been widely performed, broadcast, anthologized and published nationally and internationally, and has been commissioned by the CBC. He received a PhD. Barwin has given hundreds of readings and performances in Canada and internationally.
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Unprotected heterosexual sex continues to be the main transmission route for new infections. The illegal nature of sex work and homosexuality in Zimbabwe presents huge barriers for sex workers and men who have sex with men from accessing HIV services. Nearly every pregnant woman now has access to antiretroviral medicines thanks to the success of PMTCT services in Zimbabwe — also contributing to a decline of new infections among infants. Over three quarters of HIV expenditure in Zimbabwe comes from international donor sources.
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The rate of infection in some parts of the continent is times higher than in the United States, yet sexual activity is similar. Epidemiologists, forced to reconsider their theories of how the disease spreads, have come up with surprising new insights. Vast and underpopulated, it is largely free of the teeming slums, war zones, and inner-city drug cultures that epidemiologists say are typical niches for the human immunodeficiency virus.
Botswana is an African paradise. Shortly after gaining its independence from Britain in , large diamond reserves were discovered, and the economy has since grown faster—and for longer—than that of virtually any other nation in the world. Education is free, corruption is rare, crime rates are low, and the nation has never been at war. A visitor quickly learns that even mild criticism of anything related to Botswana is considered impolite. Yet this country, with all these advantages, has the highest HIV-infection rate in the world.
The virus has spread extremely rapidly in Botswana. Two decades ago, virtually no one there was HIV-positive. By an estimated 20 percent of sexually active adults were infected.
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HIV-1 polymerase sequences were obtained from samples in Nairobi and coastal Kenya from 84 MSM, other men, and women from to Using Bayesian phylogenetics, we tested whether sequences clustered by sexual orientation and geographic location. In addition, we used trait diffusion analyses to identify significant epidemiological links and to quantify the number of transmissions between risk groups. However, a weak but significant link was evident when studying all subtypes together.
GenBank comparison did not reveal other important transmission links. Introduction Sex between men has only recently been recognized as an important route of HIV-1 transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Several molecular phylogenetic studies have shown the potential of HIV-1 polymerase pol sequences to provide insight into HIV-1 transmission networks, revealing infections related by time, geographic area, and risk group.
Sequences were selected from a cohort study among MSM and female sex workers FSW in coastal Kenya and MSM sex workers in Nairobi, and from female and male patients who participated in antiretroviral drug resistance monitoring studies in hospital-based clinics in the same geographic areas. The route of infection of the hospital clinic comparison population was unknown, but was assumed to be heterosexual for women.
To reveal any other transmission networks, a comparison of the sequences from MSM was made with all sequences available online at GenBank. From July , a prospective study of adults at high risk for HIV-1 acquisition in coastal Kenya began enrolling volunteers. At each visit, detailed sexual behavior questionnaires were completed, and volunteers received free condoms and HIV counseling and testing. The estimated date of infection was defined as the midpoint between the last seronegative and first seropositive sample, or 14 days prior to the first p24 antigen-positive sample, or 10 days prior to the first RNA-positive sample, in the absence of a positive p24 antigen or antibody test.
Pol sequences were obtained from the first HIV-1 RNA-positive sample for antiretroviral drug resistance testing, as described previously.
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The increasing popularity of the internet as a working site amongst male sex workers in Melbourne The article also highlights the seemingly large numbers of men using dating websites who are casually propositioned online and may consent to such proposals, suggesting further research is required to ascertain the characteristics and experiences of those involved in informal sex work activity.
Men on the Move in Vancouver in , it was one of the few outreach organizations in Canada to work specifically with men in the sex industry, providing peer support, safer-sex materials, nutrition, harm reduction and needle exchanges to street-level sex workers and street-involved youth. Since then, not much has changed. There are still only a handful of male-specific support services that exist across the country. Sexual minority street youth are not only more likely to engage in survival sex work but also demonstrate elevated HIV risk behavior.
Men on the Move Attention is also given to identifying and supporting street involved youth who may be at risk of exploitation in Vancouver Communities. Sex Workers and the Gay Community Why then the opprobrium that so many gays have against male sex workers? For one, the male prostitute is tarred with the same brush as his female counterpart. Gay society has adopted many of the values and prejudices of the straights even when they do not apply to homosexual s.
Young and proud males feel that they deserve to have free sex.
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A drug user whose face has rotted away after taking cocaine laced with de-wormer for cattle Image: Could not subscribe, try again laterInvalid Email Cocaine-taking Brits are at risk of their faces rotting away as ruthless gangs are ‘cutting’ drugs with de-worming chemicals for farm animals. A shocking report claims there is a four in five chance the UK’s supply has been ‘cut’ with levamisole, which causes human flesh to decay.
Levamisole poisoning can cause skin lesions and discolouration and rotting of the skin when blood cells rupture, particularly in the ears, nose and fingers. Doctors also claim the drug that is used on pigs, cows and horses causes white blood cells to drop – leaving the sufferer ‘feeling they have HIV. A shocking report claims there is a four in five chance the UK’s cocaine supply has been ‘cut’ with levamisole, which causes human flesh to decay But it seems the risk to users is even higher now it’s emerged gangs are routinely using the powerful deworming agent to cut the class A drugs.
Police have issued the warning amid reports of a series of deaths and overdoses in a quiet seaside town, where super-strength heroin and cocaine is being sold. Detectives in Eastbourne said the incidents have occurred since April and in at least two cases the cocaine was found to be nearly per cent pure. Read More Notorious Silk Road kingpin ‘Dread Pirate Roberts’ will spend the rest of his life in jail Detective Inspector Neil Ralph said “We investigate all drug overdoses and drug-related deaths, and look to identify who has supplied the drugs and seek a prosecution.
After running chemical tests on her hair, the team realised that the condition was caused by levamisole-tainted cocaine she’d taken. Levamisole poisoning can cause skin lesions and discolouration and rotting of the skin when blood cells rupture, particularly in extremities such as the ears, nose and fingers.
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The dark side of sisterhood Few people are socialised to have the HIV disclosure conversation despite the fact that it is a key part of intimate relationships. But I would never not use protection with anyone else except my wife. Thirty-year-old Mary and her previous boyfriend never had the HIV disclosure talk. But he was asking about my chances of falling pregnant, not my HIV status.
After that I had a pregnancy scare which turned into a HIV scare. We got tested and both the pregnancy and our HIV status turned out negative. In her case, disclosure became a minefield after she found out her status. But the same girlfriend from the nightclub got to him first. He suggested we meet for coffee. He asked me if there was something he needed to know, like my health status. And I knew that he knew. I want to be myself first.
That depends on why you are doing it, and also on the depth of the relationship. But she also insists that HIV positive people also have a responsibility to make their partners aware.
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Both HIV and cervical cancer present significant public health threats to women in sub-Saharan Africa. But while the threat of HIV is well documented, and the mass mobilisation of resources to treat HIV, unprecedented, cervical cancer is a relatively new and developing challenge for the region. Cervical cancer is preventable, but it remains the second most common cause of cancer among women and the leading cause of female cancer deaths in sub-Saharan Africa.
It is also one of the most common cancers in women living with HIV.
In Thailand, for example, UNICEF has worked with the Government to reduce the age of consent for HIV tests to under 18, so that adolescents can access testing services without adult consent, which otherwise might act as a deterrent.
Many species are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period. Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase , that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle. The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, integrase , and host co-factors.
Alternatively, the integrated viral DNA may be transcribed , producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins, using host cell resources, that are packaged and released from the cell as new virus particles that will begin the replication cycle anew. Two types of HIV have been characterized: A matrix composed of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid ensuring the integrity of the virion particle. The viral envelope contains proteins from the host cell and relatively few copies of the HIV Envelope protein,  which consists of a cap made of three molecules known as glycoprotein gp , and a stem consisting of three gp41 molecules that anchor the structure into the viral envelope.
The density is high as the glycans shield the underlying viral protein from neutralisation by antibodies. This is one of the most densely glycosylated molecules known and the density is sufficiently high to prevent the normal maturation process of glycans during biogenesis in the endoplasmic and Golgi apparatus. Three of these genes, gag, pol, and env, contain information needed to make the structural proteins for new virus particles.
The six remaining genes, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu or vpx in the case of HIV-2 , are regulatory genes for proteins that control the ability of HIV to infect cells, produce new copies of virus replicate , or cause disease. The vpu protein p16 influences the release of new virus particles from infected cells. Regions in the LTR act as switches to control production of new viruses and can be triggered by proteins from either HIV or the host cell.
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There is a cyclical relationship between stigma and HIV; people who experience stigma and discrimination are marginalised and made more vulnerable to HIV, while those living with HIV are more vulnerable to experiencing stigma and discrimination. Roughly one in eight people living with HIV is being denied health services because of stigma and discrimination. Adopting a human rights approach to HIV and AIDS is in the best interests of public health and is key to eradicating stigma and discrimination.
Jul 03, · In this episode of “ShakaExtraTime, a show only on Facebook based on questions from social media, Shaka talks about the state of football in Africa, the social media tax in .
Abbreviations , which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions. Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement.
Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names BGN. Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. Geographic names conform to spellings approved by the BGN with the exception of the omission of diacritical marks and special characters. Age structure This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age.
Information is included by sex and age group as follows: The age structure of a population affects a nation’s key socioeconomic issues.
Global information and education on HIV and AIDS
Immigration regulation Each of these strategies has widely differing levels of efficacy, social acceptance, and acceptance in the medical and scientific communities. Over 60 countries impose some form of travel restriction, either for short- or long-term stays, for people infected with HIV. These persuasive messages have successfully increased people’s knowledge about HIV. More importantly, information sent out through advertising and social marketing also proves to be effective in promoting more favorable attitudes and intentions toward future condom use, though they did not bring significant change in actual behaviors except those were targeting at specific behavioral skills.
African American audiences need to be educated about strategies they could take to efficiently manage themselves in health behaviors such as mood control, management of drugs, and proactive planning for sexual behaviors.
Both HIV and cervical cancer present significant public health threats to women in sub-Saharan Africa. But while the threat of HIV is well documented, and the mass mobilisation of resources to treat HIV, unprecedented, cervical cancer is a relatively new and developing challenge for the region.
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Romantic— If your idea of a night out is going to a discount movie theater and then taking the bus home to no fanfare, she might also pass you by. Expect to be buying lots of flowers for this woman. Funny-We understand that there are times where women want you to be as serious as a judge. She is the type that wants to hear a good joke and I can imagine would be willing to be the butt of one under the right circumstances.